AskDefine | Define jerk

Dictionary Definition

jerk

Noun

1 a dull stupid fatuous person [syn: dork]
2 an abrupt spasmodic movement [syn: jerking, jolt]
3 (mechanics) the rate of change of velocity [syn: rate of acceleration]
4 a sudden abrupt pull [syn: tug]

Verb

1 pull, or move with a sudden movement; "He turned the handle and jerked the door open" [syn: yank]
2 move with abrupt, seemingly uncontrolled motions; "The patient's legs were jerkings" [syn: twitch]
3 make an uncontrolled, short, jerky motion; "his face is twitching" [syn: twitch]
4 jump vertically, with legs stiff and back arched; "the yung filly bucked" [syn: buck, hitch]
5 throw or toss with a quick motion; "flick a piece of paper across the table"; "jerk his head" [syn: flick]

User Contributed Dictionary

English

Pronunciation

  • /ʤɜ:k/

Etymology 1

Apparently imitative.

Noun

  1. A quick, often unpleasant tug or shake.
    When I yell "OK," give the mooring line a good jerk!
  2. A sudden, uncontrolled movement, for instance, of the body.
  3. the change in acceleration with respect to time.
    Usage note: Jerk is measured in metres per cubic second (m/s3) in SI units , or in feet per cubic second (ft/s3) in imperial units.
  4. A person who is unwelcome due to unlikable qualities and behavior, often mean, foolish or disagreeable.
  5. A rich, spicy Jamaican marinade; a dish made with such a marinade.
Translations
A quick, often unpleasant tug or shake
A sudden, uncontrolled movement, for instance, of the body
the change in acceleration with respect to time
  • Czech: ryv
A person, usually male, who is unwelcome due to unlikable qualities and behavior
A rich, spicy Jamaican marinade; a dish made with such a marinade

Verb

  1. To make a quick, often unpleasant tug or shake.
  2. To make a sudden uncontrolled movement.
  3. To marinade in jerk seasoning.
  4. To masturbate. (See also: jerk off)
Translations
To make a quick, often unpleasant tug or shake
To make a sudden uncontrolled movement
To marinade in jerk seasoning

Related terms

Etymology 2

From American charquear, from charqui, from echarqui.

Verb

  1. To cure (meat) by cutting it into strips and drying it, originally in the sun.

Noun

  1. Meat cured by jerking; charqui.

Extensive Definition

''This article is about the physics concept of jerk. For other terms of jerk, see Jerk (disambiguation).
In physics, jerk, jolt (especially in British English), surge or lurch, is the rate of change of acceleration; that is, the derivative of acceleration with respect to time, the second derivative of velocity, or the third derivative of displacement. Jerk is defined by the following equation:
\vec j=\frac =\frac =\frac
where
\vec a is acceleration,
\vec v is velocity,
\vec r is displacement
\mathit is time.
Jerk is a vector, and there is no generally used term to describe its scalar magnitude.
The units of jerk are metres per second cubed (m/s3). There is no universal agreement on the symbol for jerk, but j is commonly used.

Related concepts

Yank is sometimes used as the analog of force with respect to jerk: mass times jerk, or equivalently, the derivative of force with respect to time.
Higher derivatives of displacement are rarely necessary, and hence lack agreed-on names. The fourth derivative of position was considered in development of the Hubble Space Telescope's pointing control system, and called jounce. Many other suggestions have been made, such as jilt, jouse, jolt, and delta jerk. As more distinct terms that start with letters other than "j", the term snap has been proposed for the 4th derivative of position, with "crackle" and "pop" having been suggested - facetiously - as names for the 5th and 6th derivatives.http://sprott.physics.wisc.edu/pubs/paper229.pdf

Applications

Jerk is often used in engineering, especially when building roller coasters. Some precision or fragile objects — such as passengers, who need time to sense stress changes and adjust their muscle tension, or suffer, e.g., whiplash — can be safely subjected not only to a maximum acceleration, but also to a maximum jerk. Jerk may be considered when the excitation of vibrations is a concern. A device which measures jerk is called a "jerkmeter."
Jerk is also important to consider in manufacturing processes. Rapid changes in acceleration of a cutting tool can lead to premature tool wear and result in uneven lines of a cut. This is why modern motion controllers include jerk limitation features.

Third order motion profile

In motion control, a common need is to move a system from one steady position to another (point-to-point motion). Following the fastest possible motion within an allowed maximum value for speed, acceleration, and jerk, will result in a third-order motion profile as illustrated below:
The motion profile consists of up to 7 segments defined by the following:
  1. acceleration build-up, with maximum positive jerk
  2. constant acceleration (zero jerk)
  3. acceleration ramp-down, approaching the desired maximum velocity, with maximum negative jerk
  4. constant speed (zero jerk, zero acceleration)
  5. deceleration build-up, approaching the desired deceleration, with maximum negative jerk
  6. constant deceleration (zero jerk)
  7. deceleration ramp-down, approaching the desired position at zero velocity, with maximum positive jerk
If the initial and final positions are sufficiently close together, the maximum acceleration or maximum velocity may never be reached.

Jerk systems

A jerk system is a system whose behavior is described by a jerk equation, which is an equation of the form (Sprott, 2003):
\frac=
f\left(\frac,\frac,x\right)
For example, certain simple electronic circuits may be designed which are described by a jerk equation. These are known as jerk circuits.
One of the most interesting properties of jerk systems is the possibility of chaotic behavior. In fact, certain well-known chaotic systems such as the Lorenz attractor and the Rössler map are conventionally described as a system of three first-order differential equations, but which may be combined into a single (although rather complicated) jerk equation.
An example of a jerk equation is: \frac+A\frac+\frac-|x|+1=0 .
Where A is an adjustable parameter. This equation has a chaotic solution for A=3/5 and can be implemented with the following jerk circuit:
In the above circuit, all resistors are of equal value, except R_A=R/A=5R/3, and all capacitors are of equal size. The dominant frequency will be 1/2\pi R C. The output of op amp 0 will correspond to the x variable, the output of 1 will correspond to the first derivative of x and the output of 2 will correspond to the second derivative.

Footnotes

References

External links

jerk in Catalan: Sobreacceleració
jerk in German: Ruck
jerk in Spanish: Sobreaceleración
jerk in French: Jerk (physique)
jerk in Italian: Jerk
jerk in Hebrew: נתירה
jerk in Malay (macrolanguage): Sentakan
jerk in Dutch: Jerk
jerk in Japanese: 躍度
jerk in Low German: Ruck (Kinetik)
jerk in Polish: Zryw
jerk in Russian: Рывок (кинематика)
jerk in Simple English: Jerk

Synonyms, Antonyms and Related Words

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